Financial econometrics considers the application of statistical techniques to financial data with the purpose of having more efficient financial investments. This field of study is useful for private investors and also for financial and economic organizations taking investment decisions in local or global financial markets. Financial econometrics provides, for example, statistical estimates of expected return (i.e. forecasts) and risk (e.g. volatility; value at risk; the beta coefficient) of financial portfolios, which help to construct optimal portfolios, to forecast financial asset prices and to measure financial risk.